Biological diversity or biodiversity, refers to the variety of life in all its forms including plants, animals and microbes that exist and interact in the various biological communities and ecosystems. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level Sri Lanka is one of 34 ‘biodiversity hotspots’ of the world, with a large proportion of endemic species and a high dependence on its biodiversity for tourism and other social and economic activities.
The species diversity of Sri Lanka shows that having 4000 species of flowering plants, 107 species of freshwater fish, 59 species of amphibians, 174 species of reptiles, 435 species of birds, 140 species of mammals and several thousand invertebrates. Within the Asian region Sri Lanka has the highest species density for flowering plants, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Tropical life, spread in 12 acre lush greenery land and bordering to 100 acre organic paddy field as well as to small river called Dambullu oya is un dought one of best biological hotspot in Dambulla. and bare the ownership for large number of species diversity as mentioned above.